Sports injuries PDF Print E-mail
Written by Mihajlo Kostic   
Sunday, 27 June 2010 14:27

SPORTS INJURIES

 

(Preventive and rehabilitative programs)

 

knee-injury

The basis of a healthy life is playing sport or recreation. Unfortunately, both sport and recreation in addition to a large number of good aspects have a bad and undesirable side i.e. injuries. Injuries can distance the athlete for a longer or shorter period of time from training process or, in the worst case, it may even be permanent. Injuries in athletes primarily cause a number of emotional and psychological trauma, then skipping the season, but also financial cost which depending on the degree of injury is not negligible. Ankle ligament injuries constitute 15-45% of all sports injuries, and are especially present with sports where frequent jumps, landings and rapid changes in direction of movement occur, as is the case in team sports. More than half of all injuries to the knee joint are the injuries of meniscus lesions. Injury of the medial meniscus is 15-20 times more common than lateral meniscus injury which is a result of its lower flexibility compared to the lateral meniscus, and because of its close ties to the medial collateral ligament.

Much more severe knee injury is rupture (tear) of the anterior cruciate ligament. This type of knee injury is a growing concern in sport, especially in team sports, and that is why surgery is more complex and the recovery process longer.


 


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The anterior cruciate ligament injuries are 4-6 times more common in women than in men. There are several causes of anterior cruciate ligament injury. The most common causes of injuries are poorer proprioception and coordination, leg muscle weakness, primarily m.quadrcepsa. It is common with women to have less knee flexion and greater valgus angle, which increases the risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament.

In addition to the aforementioned injuries of the lower extremities, hip muscle injury are predominant in football. The most common cause of these types of injuries are weakness, insufficient flexibility of these muscles as well as weaknessof the  complete abdominal and lumbar regions. In sports such as handball, swimming, water polo, tennis, gymnastics and athletics (throwing events) shoulder joint and elbow joint injuries are very common. The most common cause of these types of injuries, besides the weakness and lack of flexibility of the upper extremities, is incorrect technical performance of the movement. This requires constant control of the regularity of movements with the aim of its improvement and reducing the risk of injury. The advancement of science and technology, and the development of sport brought the development of preventive training programs that allow reduction in the number and  severity of athletes injuries. The following text is an introduction to our preventative program.

 

 

PREVENTION PROGRAM

 

What precedes development of preventive training program is an analysis of risk of injury in specific sports branch, diagnostics of the athletes level and their fitness deficit determination. i.e. the level of their fitness. Each session of the program is carried out with constant feedback on the correctness of motor task during the immediate performance and aftern the training. Our prevention program is based on the use of complex neuromuscular program that includes specific exercises of flexibilityi, balance exercises, SAQ exercises (speed ,agility and quickness) and functional strength exercises.

 

Table 1 shows some of the exercises that are used in the prevention program

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REHABILITATION PROGRAM

 

The rehabilitation program includes work from injuries that athletes have broken away from the pitch and training process. Depending on the degree of injury inflicted and possibly done surgery in cooperation with the professional staff of sports medicine approach to the development of a detailed rehabilitation program. After an injury inflicted by a reduction in range of motion in the knee joint, similar to the later after knee surgery. Reduced mobility of the knee joint reduces muscle function front and back thigh so that it comes to muscle atrophy that loss of muscle volume in particular m. guadriceps femoris. Our program consists of two phases. The first stage is to improve mobility of the knee joint, work on proprieception and atrophied muscle hypertrophy on the front and back of a thigh. The second phase will continue to strengthen and work on restoring coordination, speed and agility, ie. specifically athlete adapts activities and returns to full training process.

 

 

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Figure 2 elektrostimulation device latest generation Compex 

 

This device electrically stimulates the nerve and muscle cells, which causes the muscles to contract. Its implementation is important in the first phase of rehabilitation of the injured part of the body (usually the knee joint, shoulder ...) when you still can not perform a certain movement or the movement may not burden the (eg weight) and thus strengthen the muscles in order to prevent atrophy and to improve its contractive ability.

 

Figure 3 shows modern equipment that we use in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries

 

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Last Updated on Sunday, 21 October 2012 01:21